Hepatitis ABCD

Hepatitis A


Hepatitis A is a disease caused by type A hepatitis virus and attacks human liver cells. Every year in Southeast Asia, hepatitis A cases affect about 400,000 people per year with mortality rate up to 800 people. Most people with hepatitis A are children.

Early symptoms that can arise include fever, nausea, vomiting, joint and muscle pain, and diarrhea. When the liver is already attacked, there are some other symptoms that will appear, namely dark urine, pale stools, jaundice and itching. In addition, the upper right abdominal area will also be painful especially if pressed.

But not all people have symptoms of hepatitis A. Therefore, the disease is sometimes difficult to realize. Only one in ten people with hepatitis A under 6 years old suffer from jaundice. While in adolescents and adults, this disease usually causes more severe symptoms and 70 percent of them will experience jaundice.

Unlike the other two types of hepatitis namely hepatitis B and hepatitis C, infection caused by hepatitis A does not cause long-term liver disorders (chronic), and rarely fatal. However, hepatitis A can lead to the emergence of symptoms of acute liver damage, which is quite dangerous and potentially life-threatening.


Advertise


Safe Link Converter

Encrypting your link and protect the link from viruses, malware, thief, etc!
Made your link safe to visit.

How to use our tool:

  1. Click on How To Use menu above.
  2. Click on the code and CTRL + C on your keyboard.
  3. Paste the code in your HTML blog theme before the </body>.
  4. Save your HTML blog theme. you are done!
  5. Now, your blog's outbound links was encrypted!

Advertise

Loading...

Your link show here

Advertise



Advertise

Loading...

Cause and Transmission of Hepatitis A

The cause of this disease is the hepatitis A virus that can spread very easily. The main way of transmission is through foods or drinks that have been contaminated by stools of hepatitis A. Some of the risk factors that can increase the spread of this virus include:

    Poor sanitation.
    Contact directly with the person.
    Share a syringe.
    Having sex with people, especially anal sex.
    Men who have sex with men.
    Work in areas related to dirt, eg sewers.

Treatment Steps of Hepatitis A
This disease does not have a special handling step because the immune system will eliminate the virus by itself.

However, your doctor may prescribe medications to relieve the symptoms experienced by the person. Treatments include taking itchy medication, pain, nausea and vomiting according to the dose. Liver organs also need to be allowed to rest for example by not consuming liquor and be careful with drugs that can affect the liver.

The time it takes the person to fully recover from the disease is usually a few months. Persons who successfully recover completely will have immunity against this disease.
Risk of Hepatitis A Complications

Hepatitis A infection generally does not cause long-term (chronic) liver disease and is rarely fatal. However, this disease has the potential to cause liver failure, especially in those who have had liver disease prior to hepatitis A infection and elderly patients. In addition, in some patients with this infection can recur or return again.

Ways to Prevent Hepatitis A

Because the main spread is through the consumption of contaminated things, the main step of prevention of hepatitis A is to maintain cleanliness. This step can be done easily, such as always washing hands, avoid consumption of raw or undercooked foods and avoid consumption of raw water that is not guaranteed cleanliness.

In addition, hepatitis A vaccination can also prevent this disease. Especially for those who have a high risk such as people who suffer from chronic liver disease, as well as users of unsterile needle syringes.

Symptoms of Hepatitis A

Early symptoms that can appear in hepatitis A disease are dizziness, nausea, vomiting, sore throat, diarrhea, loss of appetite, fatigue and pain in muscles and joints. When your liver begins to develop, there are some symptoms that will appear, namely dark urine, pale yellow stools, jaundice and swelling of the heart that feels pain if the upper right stomach is suppressed.

Not all people with hepatitis A will show symptoms. Therefore, the disease is sometimes difficult to realize. Usually the virus incubation period (the period since the entry of the virus until symptoms appear) lasts about two weeks to a month.

People with hepatitis A children under the age of six tend to have no symptoms. Only one in 10 has jaundice. While in adolescents and adults, this disease usually causes more severe symptoms and about 70 percent of them will experience jaundice.

Causes of Hepatitis A

The cause of this disease is the hepatitis A virus that can spread very easily. Most cases of hepatitis A in Indonesia caused by the consumption of foods that have been contaminated by stools of people with hepatitis A due to poor hygiene. So it is important for us, especially the children, to always wash their hands regularly and not snack in places where cleanliness is doubtful.

Some risk factors that can increase the spread of hepatitis A virus include:

     Poor sanitation.
     Lack of clean water availability.
     Eat raw foods.
     Direct contact with people, for example because of living at home.
     Wear and share syringes.
     Having sex with people, especially anal sex.
     Sexual intercourse between men.
     Work in areas related to dirt, eg sewers.

Treatment of Hepatitis A

To diagnose hepatitis A, your doctor will ask you the history of the course of the illness you are experiencing. After that, your doctor will advise you to do a blood test. The indication that you have hepatitis A is if your blood test results indicate a positive reaction of antibodies produced by the immune system against this virus.

If antibody IgG Hepatitis A is present, it means the new patient is infected with hepatitis A for about 2 weeks. These antibodies will disappear 3 to 12 months after infection occurs.

Whereas if antibodies are found to be Hepatitis A type IgG, then hepatitis A infection has lasted approximately for 8 to 12 weeks. This type of antibody will survive in the blood and protect the patient's body forever.

If positive for this disease, your doctor will check your heart condition through other blood tests and ultrasound.

This disease has no special handling measures. Recovery depends only on the immune system that eliminates the virus by itself. The treatment of hepatitis A aims to relieve the symptoms experienced. Treatment steps include:

  • Many rest. People with hepatitis A will definitely experience fatigue, especially early in the infection.
  • Taking painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen in accordance with a doctor's prescription, if the patient feels pain or pain.
  • Overcome nausea and vomiting, for example by avoiding fatty foods and eating with small portions. If these symptoms are not reduced, your doctor will usually prescribe an anti-immaculatory medication such as metoclopramide. These drugs are available in tablets, capsules, powders, and by injection.
  • Do not consume liquor or drugs that affect the liver so your liver can also rest. If there are certain medications you should use, discuss the dose or type of safe medication with your doctor.

There are several ways for people with Hepatitis A to prevent the spread of infection to others, namely:

  • Do not share towels with others and do not mix laundry with other people's belongings
  • Wash your hands with soap and clean water regularly, especially after the toilet.
  • Should not have sex, as long as still infected.
  • Do not prepare food for others.
  • Clean the restroom, especially the toilet section.
  • Avoid traveling outdoors, at least until a week after the symptoms start to feel.

Complications of Hepatitis A

In contrast to hepatitis B and C, hepatitis A infection generally does not cause long-term (chronic) liver disease and is rarely fatal. But some groups such as the elderly, people with chronic diseases such as diabetes, people with declining immune systems such as people with HIV, and people who have suffered from liver disease before becoming infected with hepatitis A are more prone to complications. Here are the possible complications:

Risk of Experiencing Heart Failure

This complication occurs when liver function decreases dramatically. Liver failure can cause severe vomiting, susceptible to bleeding, easy drowsiness, decreased concentration and memory, as well as impaired concentration. If not treated promptly, liver failure can lead to death.

Risk of Recurrence of Infection

Hepatitis A infection can sometimes come back. The recurrence of hepatitis A may occur more than once after the first infection.

Risk of Cholestasis

Cholestasis usually occurs in older people with hepatitis A. This condition can heal by itself without any special treatment. This complication occurs when the bile builds up in the liver. Symptoms include weight loss, fever, jaundice, and diarrhea.

Prevention of Hepatitis A

Prevention of primary hepatitis A is to maintain cleanliness. This can be done with simple steps like:

  • Always wash your hands with soap and clean water, for example before meals, before processing food, and after toilets.
  • Do not share personal items such as toothbrushes or towels.
  • Do not lend each other cutlery.
  • Always cook food until cooked and boil water until boiling.
  • Avoid snacks in street vendors whose hygiene is less awake.
  • Avoid consumption of raw foods derived from contaminated waters, such as oysters.

Prevention of hepatitis A infection can also be prevented through the vaccination done twice with intervals of 6-12 months. This vaccine is recommended for those at high risk for hepatitis A, for example people with chronic liver disease, men who have sex with men, people who frequently use needles like drugs users, and people who work in areas related to dirt like ditch.

In Indonesia itself, this vaccine does not belong to mandatory immunization. But it is available and can be given starting from the age of 2-18 years twice with intervals of 6-12 months.

Hepatitis B


Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B can cause acute and chronic conditions in patients. If you have entered a chronic level, this disease can endanger the lives of sufferers. If not treated promptly, chronic hepatitis B patients at risk for cirrhosis, liver cancer, or liver failure.

Hepatitis B is difficult to recognize because the symptoms are not immediately felt and some even do not appear. Therefore, many people do not realize that they have been infected. This virus usually develops for 1-5 months after exposure to the virus until the appearance of the first symptoms.

Some common symptoms of hepatitis B include:

    Loss of appetite.
    Nausea and vomiting.
    Pain in the lower abdomen.
    Jaundice (seen from the skin and whites of yellowing eyes).
    Symptoms similar to a cold, such as fatigue, body aches, and headaches.

How to Transmit Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B can be transmitted through blood and body fluids, such as sperm and vaginal fluids. Some of the ways of transmission generally include:

  • Sexual contact. For example, multiple partners and sex without a safety device.
  • Share a syringe. For example using a syringe that has been contaminated blood of patients with hepatitis B.
  • Inadvertent contact with a syringe. For example, health workers (paramedics) who often deal with human blood.
  • Mother and baby. A pregnant mother can transmit the disease to her baby during labor.

Diagnosis in Hepatitis B

Diagnosis of hepatitis B is done through a series of blood tests, namely antigen and antibody tests for hepatitis B virus, and blood tests to see liver function.

There are three types of antigen and antibody tests for hepatitis B, namely hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antigen (HbcAg), hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HbsAg) antibody. Each of these tests has different functions, and will be described in more detail in the diagnosis section.

Liver function tests are performed to check for the possibility of suffering from other liver diseases. This is because the symptoms of hepatitis B often resemble other diseases, especially disorders in the liver. In this examination, it will be seen whether there is an increase in liver enzymes, which indicate that your heart is under pressure or is experiencing certain disorders.

Acute and Chronic Hepatitis B

There are two types of hepatitis B infection, namely acute (occurring in a short time) and chronic (long term). Acute infections are commonly experienced by adults. If you have acute hepatitis B, your immune system can usually eliminate the virus from the body and you will recover within a few months.

Chronic hepatitis B occurs when the virus stays in the body for more than six months. This type of hepatitis B is more common in infants and children. Children infected with the virus at birth are at risk of developing hepatitis B four to five times greater than infected children in infancy.

As many as 20 percent of adults exposed to this virus will lead to a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. Patients with chronic hepatitis B can transmit the virus even without showing any symptoms. Based on WHO study, about 3 out of 10 chronic hepatitis B sufferers will experience cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis is a long-term or chronic liver damage that causes injury to the liver. The slow development of the disease results in healthy tissue replaced by damaged tissue. Liver function in processing nutrients, hormones, drugs, and toxins produced by the body will slow down.

Treatment of Hepatitis B

There is no specific step in the treatment of hepatitis B. The purpose of treatment of this condition is to reduce symptoms with painkillers, as well as maintain the daily comfort of the sufferer and his nutritional balance.

Meanwhile, treatment for chronic hepatitis B depends on the severity of infection in the liver. Handling of this disease is to use drugs that serve to inhibit the production of viruses and prevent damage to the liver.

Vaccine and Prevention of Hepatitis B

An effective step in the prevention of hepatitis B is to do the vaccine. In Indonesia alone, hepatitis B vaccine includes mandatory vaccines in immunization. The vaccine delivery process is done three times, that is when the child is born, when the child is 1 month old, and when the child aged 3-6 months. However, adults of all ages are encouraged to receive the hepatitis B vaccine, especially if they are at high risk of contracting hepatitis B. Examples are:

    People who have more than one sexual partner.
    People who use inject drugs or have sex with injecting drug users.
    Health care workers (paramedics) at risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus
    People who live in a house with hepatitis B.
    Patients with chronic liver disease.
    Patients with kidney disease.

Hepatitis B examination is also applied to pregnant women. If the mother has the disease, her baby should receive the vaccine at birth (12 hours after delivery) to prevent mother-to-child transmission. Other measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of getting hepatitis B include:

  • Stop or do not use illegal drugs.
  • Avoid sharing of goods such as toothbrushes, earrings, or shaving tools.
  • Beware when you want to pierce ataumenato body.
  • Do not have sex without a safety device unless you believe your partner does not have hepatitis B or other sexually transmitted diseases.

If you have been in contact with one of the hepatitis B patients within the last 24 hours, consult a physician immediately. The risk of transmission of this disease can be reduced by administering immunoglobulin hepatitis B injection. This is a drug solution containing antibodies against hepatitis B virus.

Symptoms of Hepatitis B

Symptoms of hepatitis B are often not immediately felt and some even do not appear as long as the person's immune system is battling the virus. That's why many people do not realize that they have been infected. Transmission can still occur as long as the virus is still present in the patient's body.

If there are any symptoms, the incubation period of hepatitis B ranges from two to five months since exposure to the virus. Incubation is the distance of time between the entry of the virus into the body until the appearance of symptoms. These symptoms will usually disappear within 30-90 days.

Included in the symptoms of hepatitis B include:

    Loss of appetite
    Nausea and vomiting.
    Diarrhea.
    Weight loss.
    Flu-like symptoms such as fatigue, body aches, headache, and high fever (about 38ÂșC or more).
    Abdominal pain.
    Limp and tired.
    Jaundice (skin and whites of yellowing eyes).

The cause of the onset of jaundice is bilirubin (a compound of red blood cell waste) that can not be eliminated by the damaged liver. This compound can also change the color of the urine to a dark yellow and the color of the stool becomes pale.

Long-term Hepatitis B (Chronic)

Chronic hepatitis B occurs when the virus stays in the body for more than six months. Symptoms tend to be lighter and not constant. Most people with this disease do not experience significant symptoms.

But patients should remain cautious because chronic hepatitis B patients, especially those not undergoing treatment, may experience serious complications. For example cirrhosis or liver inflammation.

If you find unusual symptoms that last for days or you feel you have been exposed to hepatitis B virus, consult your doctor.

Hepatitis B infection can be prevented by treatment. But keep in mind that this treatment is only effective if done within 48 hours after exposure. However, this process can sometimes be effective for up to a week.

Causes of Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B can cause acute and chronic conditions in patients. Hepatitis B is a highly contagious disease. Transmission of hepatitis B can be through contact with blood or other body fluids of the patient. Your risk will be higher if you do not have immunity to this disease.

General Risk Factors

Many people do not realize that they are infected. Here are some things that can increase your risk of developing hepatitis B:

  • Share toothbrushes, shavers, and towels that are already contaminated with infected blood.
  • Using illegal drugs and sharing needles.
  • Having sex with illegal drug users who use and share syringes.
  • Has an open wound and contact with infected blood.
  • Work and deal with blood. Paramedics and laboratory staff have a higher risk of accidental impalement of a used syringe.
  • Underwent blood transfusions in clinics or hospitals that did not check blood for hepatitis B. All blood to be used in transfusions should be tested for various diseases, including hepatitis B.
  • Treatment or dental treatment at a clinic or hospital with unsterilized equipment.
  • Piercing or tattooing the body in places where the equipment is not sterile.

Body fluids are one of the main agents in the transmission of hepatitis B. You are also at risk of developing this disease if:

  • Have unprotected sex (including oral sex and anal sex), especially if your partner is already infected.
  • Having more than one sexual partner.
  • Commercial sex workers (women or men) are also at high risk of contracting hepatitis B.

Risk Factors Geographically

Geographical factors also play a significant role in the transmission of hepatitis B. Areas with the highest number of hepatitis B cases include Southeast Asia, East Asia, Central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Southern Europe.

If you or your sexual partner has lived long in one of these areas, you are at high risk for Hepatitis B. Therefore you should be alert and encouraged to receive vaccinations.
Transmission from Mother to Infant

If the pregnant woman is exposed to hepatitis B, her baby may be infected during pregnancy or at birth. Pregnant women are advised to undergo a blood test so that hepatitis B can be detected immediately.

Transmission of hepatitis B from mother to baby can still be prevented. The trick is to give the hepatitis B vaccine to the baby at birth (preferably within 12 hours). Breastfeeding may also be done if the baby has received the vaccine at birth.

Diagnosis of Hepatitis B

Diagnosis of hepatitis B is established through a series of blood tests, namely antigen and antibody tests for hepatitis B virus, and blood tests to see liver function.

There are three types of antigen and antibody tests for hepatitis B, namely:

  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg). This test is performed to assess the transmission of hepatitis B virus. Negative test results (-) means no hepatitis B virus in your blood. While positive test results (+) indicate that you have hepatitis B virus in the body and potentially spread this virus to others. However, this test can not distinguish whether the infection is occurring (acute) or has occurred in the past (chronic).
  • Hepatitis B core antigen (HbcAg). This test is often done if your HbsAg results show positive results, because with this test can be seen whether the hepatitis B that you experience is acute or chronic. Positive HbcAg generally means you have chronic (long-term) hepatitis B, or it may mean you are recovering from acute hepatitis B.
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HbsAg) antibody. This test shows your immunity to hepatitis B virus. Your anti-HbsAg apabia is positive, it is likely that you will be protected from hepatitis B virus. A positive test result can mean you have been getting a hepatitis B vaccine or you have been in recovery from acute hepatitis B .

In addition to the above three tests, your doctor may advise you to do a blood test to see the liver function. This liver function test will see if there is an increase in liver enzymes, indicating that your heart is working harder than normal, under pressure, or is being damaged.

Treatment of Hepatitis B

The hepatitis B treatment process is usually performed by a liver specialist (hepatologist). The type of treatment for hepatitis B is done depending on how long the patient is infected. Whether acute (short-term) hepatitis or chronic hepatitis B (long-term).

Acute Hepatitis B Treatment Step

This acute infection is commonly experienced by adult patients. Acute hepatitis B patients can usually be symptom free and recover within months without chronic hepatitis B.

There are no specific steps to treat acute hepatitis B. This disease can be cured without having to undergo hospitalization. However, patients are advised to consult a doctor if they experience severe symptoms.

The goal of acute hepatitis B treatment is to relieve symptoms by administering painkillers (eg paracetamol) and anti-nausea drugs (eg metoclopramide). Your doctor may give you codeine if your pain is more severe.

Patients with acute hepatitis B who feel healthy not necessarily free from viruses. They are advised to undergo regular blood tests and medical checkups. This process aims to ensure you are completely free from viruses and do not have chronic hepatitis B.

Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B

Patients with chronic hepatitis B generally do not feel any symptoms for a long time. Many people do not realize that they have been infected. If you have been diagnosed positively for this disease, the patient generally requires long-term (sometimes years) medication to prevent liver damage.

As the world of medicine progresses, effective drugs to suppress hepatitis B virus activity are now available. These drugs can inhibit the process of damage to the liver so that the body could fix it. But keep in mind that the possibility of these drugs to completely eliminate the virus is very thin.

Chronic liver condition of chronic hepatitis B patients should also be monitored regularly. This examination will show whether the virus has damaged the liver and how far the damage. This process usually includes:

  • Blood test
  • Ultrasound
  • FibroScan (a tool to measure the rate of wound tissue formation and hardening of liver tissue)
  • Liver biopsy (this process is rarely used)

There are some people who have immune hepatitis B that can suppress the activity of the virus so as not to damage the liver. Therefore, the type of drug to be consumed depends on the presence or absence of the ongoing liver damage process.

If the hepatitis B liver is still functioning properly, doctors usually recommend the use of peginterferon alfa-2a. If the examination indicates that your heart is damaged, your doctor will give you another medication. The damage that occurs indicates that peginterferon alfa-2a is less effective or not suitable for you. An alternative that doctors may offer is an antiviral drug (usually tenofovir or entecavir). The side effects of this drug are vomiting, body aches, and dizziness.

If the liver damage is very severe, your doctor will advise you to undergo a liver transplant (surgery procedure to replace a damaged liver with a healthy heart). Most of the healthy liver comes from people who have died. But not a few people are still alive who are willing to donate their hearts.

Complications of Hepatitis B

One in three chronic hepatitis B patients who do not undergo treatment can experience serious liver disease complications. These complications include cirrhosis, liver cancer, and fulminant hepatitis B.
Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is the formation of scar tissue in the liver. Scar tissue is a tissue that forms after the initially normal liver cells, sustained injuries or inflammation. Symptoms of cirrhosis are usually undetectable and often unrecognized by the sufferer until severe damage to the liver. Severe cirrhosis can trigger symptoms such as weight loss, nausea, fatigue, itching of the skin and swelling of the abdomen and ankles.

The development of these complications can be inhibited with certain treatment steps, for example with antiviral drugs. But there are some patients who are forced to undergo liver transplant because the condition is already very severe.
Heart cancer

Chronic hepatitis B can develop into liver cancer if not treated properly. Symptoms of this complication include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weight loss, and jaundice (skin and whites of yellowing eyes). Surgery may be performed to remove the liver part of the cancer.
Hepatitis B Fulminan

Fulminant hepatitis B occurs when the immune system becomes mistaken and starts to attack the liver causing severe damage. Some symptoms that indicate the condition is the patient becomes confused or confused, bloated abdomen, and jaundice. This disease can cause the liver to stop functioning and is often fatal if not treated immediately.

Hepatitis C


Hepatitis C is one of the diseases that can attack the liver. Diseases caused by this virus can trigger infections and inflammation of the liver.

Hepatitis C generally does not show symptoms in the early stages. Therefore, around the hepatitis C patient does not realize that he had been infected until finally suffered liver damage years later.

Although there are symptoms of hepatitis C that appear, the indication is similar to other diseases that are difficult to realize. Some of them are always tired, stiff, and no appetite.

Acute and Chronic Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C virus can cause acute and chronic infections.

Acute hepatitis C is an infection that occurs in the first 6 months. These infections are usually asymptomatic and rarely deadly. Approximately 15-45 percent of sufferers successfully recover from this disease without special treatment.

While the remaining 55 to 85 percent will save the virus for a long time which then develops into chronic hepatitis C infection. Chronic hepatitis C patients have a risk of about 15-30 percent for liver cirrhosis within 20 years. Cirrhosis These complications can be fatal.

According to WHO, the number of people with chronic hepatitis C in the world reaches 130 to 150 million people and there are about 700 thousand people who suffer from liver disease caused by hepatitis C. While in Indonesia, there are recorded at least 28 million people who suffer from hepatitis C and B and half among which develop chronic.

How to Transmit Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C virus develops in the blood. Therefore, we will be infected with hepatitis C in contact with the blood of the patient.

The most common mode of hepatitis C transmission is through hypodermic needles, such as drug users who share needles or undergo tattooing in places where there is no sterile equipment. In addition, lending each other personal items such as nail clippers and toothbrushes and free sex can also heighten a person's risk of contracting the disease.

However, hepatitis C virus will not spread through breast milk, food, drink, or touch like shaking hands or hugging.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Hepatitis C

If treated as early as possible, liver damage in hepatitis C patients can be prevented and inhibited. Therefore, people at high risk of contracting the disease are advised to undergo blood tests to diagnose hepatitis C. For example, people who have had or are active in using injecting drugs or who have undergone blood transfusions.

If you have positive hepatitis C, you do not necessarily need treatment. The immune system is generally able to eradicate dasn infections not all people with chronic hepatitis C will definitely suffer liver damage.

Acute hepatitis C usually can heal without special treatment. While chronic hepatitis C sufferers require treatment steps through antiviral drugs. The drug will stop the development of the virus and prevent liver damage. Commonly used antiviral examples are interferon and ribavirin.

The experts then managed to find a new type of drug that is more effective as well as more secure and can be tolerated by the body. The name of the newest drug is a direct antiviral agent (DAA).

Please keep in mind that if ever has hepatitis C and recovered, it does not mean that your body has complete immunity to the virus. Although recovered, hepatitis C sufferers should be careful because it still has the risk to re-infected with the same disease.

Prevention of Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C has not been prevented by vaccination. But there are several ways we can do to reduce the risk of transmission, such as stop or not to use illegal drugs. Not sharing the use of potentially blood contaminated personal items (such as nail clippers and toothbrushes) can also be done as a precaution.

Although the disease is rarely transmitted through sex, the use of a safety device such as a condom can prevent you from hepatitis C. Especially in contact with blood, such as anal sex or menstrual blood.

Hepatitis C patients are also more at risk for other types of hepatitis. Doctors generally recommend vaccinations to prevent hepatitis A and B.

Symptoms of Hepatitis C

The incubation period (the time since the first virus entry until symptoms appear) for hepatitis C is 2 weeks to 6 months.

The first 6 months of infection is known as acute hepatitis C. Although there are symptoms of hepatitis C that appear, the indication is similar to other diseases that are difficult to realize.

Only about 20 percent of patients with acute hepatitis C experience symptoms. Some indications include:

    Fatigue.
    Muscle and joint pain.
    Fever.
    No appetite.
    Nausea and vomiting.
    Stomach ache.
    The stool is gray.
    Jaundice.

Immune system acute hepatitis C patients are sometimes able to kill the virus without special treatment so the patient will recover. This occurs in about 15 to 45 percent of sufferers.

While the remaining 55-85 percent will save the hepatitis C virus for a long time. This is called chronic hepatitis C.

The symptoms of chronic hepatitis C vary greatly and vary with each patient. Some have mild symptoms and some are severe. In addition to the same symptoms as acute hepatitis C, the following are other indications commonly experienced by the patient.

    Always feel tired.
    Muscle and joint pain.
    Indigestion.
    It's hard to concentrate or remember something.
    Changing moods.
    Depression.
    Itching of the skin.

Immediately consult a doctor if you experience any of the above symptoms. Diagnosis as early as possible will reduce the risk of hepatitis C complications.

Causes of Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C virus develops in the blood. Therefore, we will be infected with hepatitis C in contact with the blood of the patient. The virus is also thought to survive outside the body at room temperature for several weeks, for example in blood spills.

Transmission of hepatitis C is most common through needles, especially among drug users who share needles. In addition, there are several groups of people who are also at high risk of contracting the disease. Among others are:

  • People who share the use of personal belongings may be contaminated with blood, such as nail clippers or shavers.
  • Medical workers in the hospital who often deal with blood or body fluids patients.
  • People who have unprotected sex.
  • Patients undergoing medical procedures in hospitals with non-sterile equipment.
  • People with weak immune systems, such as people with HIV.
  • People who underwent blood transfusions or organ transplants, especially before 1992. Because before that year, blood received from donors has not been checked whether it is free from the hepatitis C virus
  • People who undergo tattooing or piercing processes in places that do not have sterile equipment.
  • Infants in the womb of infected pregnant women.

Diagnosis of Hepatitis C

If treated early, liver damage in hepatitis C patients can be prevented and inhibited. Therefore, people at high risk of contracting the disease are advised to undergo periodic hepatitis C examination. For example, drug users, medical workers, and people who have had blood transfusions or organ transplants.

This checking process is done through a blood test. There are 2 types of blood tests that are recommended to diagnose this disease, namely:

  1. An antibody test. The presence of hepatitis C indicates that you have been exposed to the virus, but that does not mean you are still suffering from this disease.
  2. Polymerase Chain Reaction or PCR Test. This test is used to check for the presence of hepatitis C virus by detecting whether the virus is still actively proliferating in your body or not. A positive result means your body has not completely eradicated the virus and the infection has entered a chronic stage.

If both of the above test results show positive results, you will be advised to undergo liver function tests. This process can be done through blood tests, ultrasound, and biopsy. These tests aim to examine the extent of damage that occurs in liver and hepatitis C virus. The hepatitis C virus genotype is divided into 6 types and each has a different response to its treatment steps.

Treatment of Hepatitis C

The type of treatment that will be treated with hepatitis C patients depends on the level of liver damage, as well as the genotype of the virus diidapnya. While the cure rate depends on several factors, especially the genotype of hepatitis C virus diidap and the type of treatment that patients undergo.

But if you are diagnosed with hepatitis C, you do not necessarily need treatment. Most acute hepatitis C can be cured without special treatment. Doctors will recommend a blood test to monitor whether the patient's immune system successfully eradicated the virus for several months.

If the virus persists, doctors will generally provide pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The drugs will be given by weekly injection for 48 weeks. If needed, doctors will also recommend other medications such as simeprevir, sofobuvir, daclatasvir, a combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir, as well as a combination of ombitaisvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir.

Just like other drugs, hepatitis C drugs have the potential to cause side effects. For example, no appetite, anemia, fever, nausea, depression, itching of the skin, anxiety, difficulty concentrating, and difficulty remembering something.

We have now developed a new type of antiviral drug that is more effective. The newest drug hepatitis C is called direct antiviral agent (DAA), which proves to be safer, more effective, and can be tolerated. The healing time of hepatitis C with DAA is also shorter, ie about 4 months.

Hepatitis C drugs (especially ribavirin) are potentially harmful to the fetus. Therefore hepatitis C treatment in pregnant women is generally performed after the person giving birth.

Hepatitis C drugs (especially ribavirin) are potentially harmful to the fetus. Therefore hepatitis C treatment in pregnant women is generally performed after the person giving birth.

In addition to medical treatment, you can also take simple steps to limit damage to the liver. For example, apply a healthy and balanced diet. exercising regularly, quitting smoking, and avoiding the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

Please keep in mind that if ever has hepatitis C and recovered, it does not mean that your body has complete immunity to the virus. Although recovered, hepatitis C sufferers should be careful because it still has the risk to re-infected with the same disease.

Complications of Hepatitis C

Until years of untreated and untreated hepatitis C infection can cause fatal liver damage. These complications include cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure.

Scar tissue in the liver or cirrhosis is a complication that develops within 20 years after first infection. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes and other hepatitis infections may also increase a person's risk of developing cirrhosis. The symptoms of cirrhosis include fatigue, nausea, no nasfs feeding, right upper abdomen (the location of the liver) pain, jaundice, and severe itching.

Severe cirrhosis can lead to liver failure and liver cancer. Symptoms that indicate liver failure include dark urine, fluid and pale stools, hair loss, frequent nosebleeds and bleeding gums, and vomiting blood. While liver cancer has symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, jaundice, and weight loss for no apparent reason.

Cirrhosis and liver failure can only be cured by liver transplant procedures. Treatment with drugs only aims to reduce symptoms and prevent cirrhosis worsening.

While liver cancer is generally difficult to cure. Treatment with chemotherapy is used to slow the spread of cancer.

Prevention of Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C has not been prevented by vaccination. But there are several ways we can take to reduce the risk of transmission, such as quitting or not using illegal drugs and avoiding sharing the use of personal belongings that may be contaminated with blood, such as shavers or toothbrushes.

Although the disease is rarely transmitted through sex, the use of safety devices such as condoms in sex can keep you from hepatitis C. Especially if there is contact with blood, such as anal sex or menstrual blood.

Prevention of hepatitis C virus spread is also important. Hepatitis C patients can prevent transmission by:

    Clean and cover the wound with a waterproof plaster.
    Do not be a blood donor.
    Always clean the blood with household cleaning remedies.
    Do not share syringes and personal belongings.

Hepatitis C sufferers are at risk for contracting other hepatitis types. Therefore, doctors generally recommend that they undergo vaccinations to prevent hepatitis A and B. Flu vaccines and pneumococcal infections are also sometimes recommended.

Hepatitis D


Hepatitis D is a disease caused by hepatitis D virus infection (Delta Virus). This virus causes inflammation of the liver.

Hepatitis D is one of five types of hepatitis, namely hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Each type of hepatitis has different methods of spread and symptoms. But specifically for hepatitis D, this disease requires the virus Hepatitis B to infect liver cells. Transmission can be done in two ways, the first is simultaneous infection simultaneously Hepatitis B with Hepatitis D (coinfected), and the second is Hepatitis D virus infection in individuals who have been infected with previous Hepatitis B (superinfection).

Hepatitis D can cause both acute and chronic disease. Acute hepatitis D occurs suddenly and gives rise to more severe symptoms than chronic hepatitis D. If hepatitis D infection occurs for 6 months or more, then the infection that occurs is a chronic infection. In chronic infection, the symptoms will develop and worsen slowly. The virus usually persists in the body for several months before the first symptoms appear. The longer the hepatitis D infection occurs, the higher the risk of complications caused by the disease.

Until now, there is no known cure for hepatitis D or vaccine to prevent hepatitis D infection. However, this disease can be prevented with hepatitis B vaccine because the virus Hepatitis D can only cause infection if there is a virus Hepatitis B.

Treatment of hepatitis D is done as early as possible to prevent the occurrence of liver failure in the sufferer. Hepatitis D infection is important to detect because it can lead to liver failure and rapid deterioration in the direction of cirrhosis and liver cancer, as well as an increased mortality rate in adult patients.

Symptoms of Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D infection is often asymptomatic (not symptomatic) in about 90% of patients. In addition, hepatitis D infection is often difficult to distinguish from other clinical viral hepatitis infections, especially symptoms of hepatitis B virus infection. Symptoms of hepatitis B and D are very similar, making it difficult to determine which virus causes symptoms in patients. In some cases, hepatitis D can make the symptoms of hepatitis B worse. In addition, hepatitis B patients with asymptomatic symptoms may experience hepatitis B symptoms due to hepatitis D infection. The hepatitis D incubation period, ie the time it takes the virus from exposure to symptoms, is about 21-45 days. However, it can also progress more quickly, especially in superinfection. Symptoms of hepatitis D are commonly encountered include:

    Skin and eyes turn yellow.
    Fatigue.
    Nausea and vomiting.
    Joint pain.
    Abdominal pain.
    Loss of appetite.
    The color of urine turns dark like tea.
    Itchy.
    Seemed confused.
    Bruises and bleeding.

Causes of Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D is caused by a hepatitis D virus infection (HDV) that can spread through body fluids or direct contact with the patient. HDV can be transmitted through:

    Urine.
    Pregnancy (from mother to fetus).
    Labor (from mother to baby).
    Sperm fluid.
    Vaginal fluid.
    Blood.

If a person has been infected with HDV, that person may transmit HDV to another person, even before hepatitis D symptoms appear. Some of the things that make a person more susceptible to hepatitis D include:

    Affected by hepatitis B infection
    Often receive blood transfusions.
    Having same-sex sex, especially men.
    Drug abuse through needles, such as heroin.
    Patient dialysis.
    Health facility worker.

Diagnosis of Hepatitis D

To confirm the diagnosis of hepatitis D in patients, can be done with blood tests as follows:

  • Antibody Checking. If anti-hepatitis D antibodies (IgM and IgG anti-HDV) are present, then the patient is positively affected by hepatitis D. In addition to antibodies, viral loads for hepatitis D are HDV RNA. But these checks are still rarely available. Keep in mind that HDV infection can only occur simultaneously or after HBV infection. Therefore, it can also be checked to detect hepatitis B in patients.
  • Liver Function Inspection. This test aims to examine the condition of liver oorgan via a blood sample. From the test results, it can be known whoever the heart is experiencing disruption or damage based on the parameters examined on blood samples, among others are:
  1. Levels of protein in the blood (albumin).
  2. Liver enzyme levels (SGOT and SGPT).
  • Bilirubin levels.
  • Blood clotting status (Platelets and INR), since the liver produces an important protein in blood clotting.
  • Ultrasound, CT scan or These three scanning methods can be used to detect the presence of liver cancer which is a complication of hepatitis D.

Treatment of Hepatitis D

Until now there has been no satisfactory treatment for hepatitis D. Early diagnosis is very important to prevent liver damage. Interferon-alpha is the only drug that shows the therapeutic effect on this disease. Treatment using interferon in patients is done by injection every week and can last for 12-18 months. However, sometimes after interferon treatment is completed, the patient can still give positive results on testing the HDV virus. Final approach to eliminate hepatitis D is to eliminate hepatitis B. If hepatitis B is still positive, Hepatitis D is still infectious.

Hepatitis D treatment focused on observation of liver function tests. Especially for people with hepatitis D who have suffered liver damage due to cirrhosis or fibrosis, can undergo liver transplant surgery. This operation is performed by lifting the heart of the damaged patient and replacing it with a healthy liver obtained from the donor.

Patients should always be routinely undergo control programs scheduled by the doctor. The recommended control program is at least every 6 months to monitor the development of hepatitis D infection as well as chronic hepatitis B.
Complications of Hepatitis D

If not treated properly, hepatitis D can cause complications that are detrimental to the patient. Hepatitis D complications tend to occur easily in chronic hepatitis D patients compared to acute hepatitis D patients. Some of the possible complications are:

    Cirrhosis.
    Heart cancer.

Prevention of Hepatitis D

The best way of prevention of hepatitis D is to prevent the occurrence of hepatitis B. To avoid the occurrence of hepatitis B, the following preventive measures can be taken:

  • Avoid using drugs Avoid using drugs, especially those who use needles. Use a sterile needle and never share a syringe.
  • Be more careful in piercing and If intend to be pierced or tattooed, make sure the equipment is clean and sterile.
  • Use a condom. Always do sex activities safely and healthily. Never have sex without using a condom unless you are sure your partner is not infected with hepatitis or other sexually transmitted infections
  • Underwent hepatitis B vaccination Children and adults at high risk for hepatitis B should undergo hepatitis B vaccination.

INFO :
<http://penyakit.review/>
<http://www.alodokter.com/hepatitis-a>
<http://www.alodokter.com/hepatitis-b>
<http://www.alodokter.com/hepatitis-c>
<http://www.alodokter.com/hepatitis-d>